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Game Theory: The Science of Decision-Making

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With up to ten years in prison at stake, will Wanda rat Fred out? Game theory is looking at human interactions through the lens of mathematics. Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Patrick Merrithew, Accalia Elementia, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Mike Frayn, Tim Curwick, Will and Sonja Marple, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Kathy Philip, Patrick D. Ashmore, Thomas J., charles george, and Bader AlGhamdi. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/microeconomics/nash-equilibrium-tutorial http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm http://assets.cambridge.org/97805213/61774/sample/9780521361774ws.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcLZMYPdpH4 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-20181-5_1 http://www.gametheory.net/dictionary/Game.html Image Links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash_Jr.
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Text Comments (1881)
Brad (1 hour ago)
Does it apply to trade agreements ?
TheNumber1 Panda (7 hours ago)
I thought MattPatt was going to be in this video.
Raul Jacobo III (1 day ago)
I have a question. Say there are two basketball teams and they play against each other, Team A and Team B. The relationship between Team A and Team B is Non-Cooperative. Now would the relationship within Team A be a cooperative game as everyone in Team A is aiming towards the goal of winning?
Patrick Skramstad (2 days ago)
In the real world many contribute and get very little or nothing
Barry Bigallow (2 days ago)
Ive be running this in my head to make situations work for me without even realising it was a thing.
dyonesios (6 days ago)
So then game theory isn't the science of decision making, as it's prescriptive rather than empirical, it's the logic behind decision strategy. It's only predictive to the extent players are good strategists, aka share the same values, act rationally, and have the same information.
Stephen Kings (6 days ago)
In the dearest moments, I will never choose game theory over virtue.
Xoxo 101 (6 days ago)
So many game theory fans XD
ice la honk (7 days ago)
isn't this a british game show? steal or split?
SkillGame (8 days ago)
I've studied a lot of game theory and this is one of the best introductions I've seen to these game types. One small thing, a Nash Equilibrium is achieved when no player can improve their result by changing strategy. As the brief annotation mentioned, you described a Dominant strategy. Curious viewers should look into optimal strategy for Prisoner's Dilemma in an iterated game (ie. multiple rounds of the same decision). It may be the best mathematical model available for the axiom "It doesn't matter if you win or lose, it's how you play the game."
Ice Gecko (9 days ago)
Munkhbayar Rinchin (9 days ago)
In the original story the prisoners rat each other not confess. Confession does not reduce your sentencing to zero. It is not counterintuitive and not helpful to explain this beautiful dilemma
Roy Matthijssen (9 days ago)
Its extremely annoying when vloggers suffocate your brains with a waterfall of text by cutting out the pause moments. Please respect your public and give them a break to process it.
Uche Philips (10 days ago)
Hmmm.... Nash also said that that we'd have a better economy if we think of the betterment of another, so the best economy here would be 2/2, don't confess... I got that from the movie though.
Manoj Kumar (10 days ago)
the 3d_darklord (11 days ago)
Seeker (14 days ago)
This was covered in the last chapter of “Algorithms to Live By” by Tom Griffiths and Brian Christian
Seth Carter (15 days ago)
When he asked "Did you interact with anyone today?" I felt that.
Aleksandar Filipovic (15 days ago)
Awesome video! Very informative. I heard of examples you listed, but never knew they fall into the scope of game theory, though I've heard of the concept several times. Well, now I finally know..
Jevesh Chauhan (16 days ago)
Gajab samjhaya bhancha
Emmett Miller (19 days ago)
0:24 But I Thought Game Theory Was Made By Mat Pat......
Fav Club (24 days ago)
I Need More Workers
simba Matutu (29 days ago)
cant follow
Ron Sutton (1 month ago)
Interesting how you mentioned stopping climate change ..as if we could ever do such a thing. Humans are arrogant
Ron Sutton (19 days ago)
Chacho B I'm sorry, did I talk about anything you just mentioned?
Chacho B (19 days ago)
Ron Sutton climate changes with or without humans. Antarctic ice core samples prove this. While yes, we do pollute the planet which is a problem, humans are not the sole reason for "climate change". Those in power(elitist) know this, and what solution do they offer? Carbon TAXING the world, which they say is for "$topping" "¢limat€ ¢hang€" lmao. The only "$topping" that will be done will be "$topping" by the bank to deposit all that cash from feeble minded fools.
Ayam Mee (1 month ago)
Man idk mat pat is super important that scientist use him. Well his channel.
Guerrilla Mobile Games (1 month ago)
Please make a Crash Course Game Theory!!!
Averyofthemain (1 month ago)
I like how he mangled the shapley to justify welfare and maternity leave which is not justified under game theory, that's why I hate the green brothers, they have no integrity.
OlymPigs2010 (1 month ago)
The logic,economics and accountability of Game Theory actually..doesn't apply at all or in any way to "Crooked Game Theory" which of course is the US Govt's enigmatic version of...Game Theory!
CyborgCreeper Playz (1 month ago)
Minus ZeRo Degrees (1 month ago)
Well that's why you try to avoid getting yourself in a bad situation in the first place. In mean the jail thing they were both stealing and damaging someone else's wellbeing in the security of their life they deserve each other.
Amish Cowboy (1 month ago)
louis willems (1 month ago)
strength actual village reader tournament favorite adoption ceiling appointment cold
OliBint (1 month ago)
I would donate something via Patreon, but, well....... game theory.
Sam Bryant (1 month ago)
So, basically co-operative game theory is like weighted average.
FishLip (1 month ago)
"Did you interact with anyone today?" ha... ha...
Hawk Eye (2 months ago)
I'm expecting to see how Nash equation will be applied to decision making.
Hawk Eye (2 months ago)
Well I think that there is no number in this math theory.
Eric Sageser (2 months ago)
Wanda will spend less time in jail because she's a women as men spend 64% more time in prison for comparable crimes.
bza069 (2 months ago)
Nash DOES NOT look like Russel Crowe.... Hollywood is shite
Martin Vegter (2 months ago)
You are wrong! Game theory was pioneered by John von Neumann, not John Nash
Tadas Kuzminskas (2 months ago)
I wan't to make this one clear for me... If i make 10 and my friend makes 20 our total production value seperatly is 30. So shloud'nt the 10 additional ones that we made while working together be devided by 3, since in my friends favor, since his production value is higher?
Lord Itachi (2 months ago)
The best part is u don't need to know math to understand this
malo dai (2 months ago)
shreya (2 months ago)
The cookie math doesn't seem fair. Their efficiencies are in the ratio 2:1, should't the profit be divided in the same ratio?
siphamandla kumalo (2 months ago)
i hate Game Theory ,i've been backstabbed through it
Joao Victor Coelho (2 months ago)
if both of them choose to confess, aren't they cooperating?
TheaDragonSpirit (2 months ago)
Look at the world as the game, rather than looking at each other as the game. We want to beat the earth game and have a better world. Not take advantage of each other.
TheaDragonSpirit (2 months ago)
8:45 - this is flawed if he worked on his own he made 30 cookies in the same about of working with someone he made 40 cookies. So two of them working alone could of made 60 cookies, but together they made 40. So what would of been better is if he taught his friend how to make cookies, then they split the profit from working together. See how that works better. If instead of trying to keep control of the recipe he trusts his friend. Then he has a chance of greater profit. Being smart is not trying to hold the other person back in order to keep an advantage. If you're constantly worried about someone screwing you over or doing better than you, then that shows a horrible flaw in the education system, because working together and trusting people is always better. Not everyone can do one job that is also how this is flawed. On large scale it's always better to not try get an advantage over other people.
TheaDragonSpirit (2 months ago)
This is a bad strategy. This implies doing something wrong is right. The best solution is to work out a way in which both parties win. By confession they are making a correct decision and so should be rewarded for doing that. Because if one loses out and gets ten years, he probably will cut your life short when he gets out. Giving you a total of 10 years or so to live or being in a constant state of fear. The best solution is to workout how to get along. It's not how to screw each other over. If your solution is to screw someone over, than they don't grow as a person and so they could do something like build the internet and make life better for all. If you keep people stupid, and give yourself the advantage you run the risk of losing out massively. The best solution is always to work out how everyone in the situation can gain. So instead of turning them against each other you say. Will both give you less time if you both confess. But if only one confesses then you both get a longer life sentence. In which both now want to confess, because nothing bad happens to the other person. No one is screwed over.
Btec Lanyard (2 months ago)
why is everything here about the youtube channel game theory and not Poseidon from prison break season 5??
Ilmu Karakter (2 months ago)
Dude, you're wrong..lol
kahan gadhiya (2 months ago)
Any video to find chapley value to support coalition with more then two players(in cooperative situation)
Emilton Patrick (2 months ago)
Best book for game theory
HardDie (2 months ago)
Yes, but Fred gets whacked (killed) on the streets within a year. Criminals don't like snitches I hear. Especially in prision, which if he is a real criminal, he would end up again some day.
Michael Ryan (2 months ago)
the best poker players are the ones who take nash equilibrium when its the only and best option, but can spot the no confess point and confess points at the same time and more often.
broken core (2 months ago)
But that's just a theory a game theory!! Props to matt pat
Mighty Goddragon (2 months ago)
game theory? like matpat is here?
Wild Bore (3 months ago)
0:48 Well... no
DerpTQ (3 months ago)
I would just do 50/50 on the cookie money
WeTube (3 months ago)
One Love
Bishops_and_Bones (3 months ago)
8:32 why wouldn't it be giving your friend credit for 7.5 extra and you 2.5 extra; so 27.50 and 12.50 respectively?
Marcelo Temer (3 months ago)
Socialism and PC were included in your concept of Game Theory! There are many supportive attitudes regarding "people who can't contribute" and this has nothing to do with game theory.
rJeremy Rodriguez (3 months ago)
Game theory is the best channel
Red Blue Green (3 months ago)
thank you!!!! i really learned a lot from your video, ill suscribe right *click* now... do you recomend any book to continue studiyng this???
Ankit Kumar (3 months ago)
How about they divide the money by counting how much cookies an individual person made ?
hyqhyp (3 months ago)
Game theory began with Von Neumann not Nash. And please desist from inserting hippy politics into mathematics. That there may be reasons for paying non performers isn't a core idea of GT, your emphases here reflects your personal political preference. Otherwise you should also mention that it may also be a very bad idea as it incentivizes non-performance and can lead to mooching.
Hahaha Yeah (3 months ago)
Hi, I'm a researcher in Human-computer Interaction, and I'm currently working on an online educational video platform project. I'm wondering whether I could use your videos in my lab experiments, and whether it is possible for you as the content creator to summarize your video content into a list of topics covered in the video? Thanks a lot in advance. You can contact me by email: [email protected]
TheWolfboy180 (3 months ago)
0:50 Well, you’ll be disappointed by my answer
A man (4 months ago)
so good
LennyThroughParadise (4 months ago)
Cool I play poker but never heard about the `Shapley value. Seems great if you want to have a business with employees working for you. Thanks for the new insights!
Cookies riddle has actually not sufficient incomng data. We know what my and my friend's separate productivity is, but our productivity in a streamline model is not given. We can solve it the way shown in the video only if we cook separately
ncooty (4 months ago)
@8:55 Game theory doesn't tell you how to be fair. I assume an economist wrote a line that absurd. Fairness is a perception (about which there are decades of research), and this approach barely skims the surface of only one facet of perceptions of fairness.
Jeffrey Weber (4 months ago)
I have to tell you, the PD is a cooperative game. The game is variable-sum, not zero-sum; everyone benifits from cooperation.
Khan tulu (4 months ago)
N F (4 months ago)
It sounds like the Kyoto protocol was aiming for the Shapley equilibrium, but ended up in a prisoner's dilemma lol. Thanks for the video, very clear and concise.
Kasia L (4 months ago)
David Barkowitz (4 months ago)
Game theory...invented by captain obvious.
Aalap D (4 months ago)
This was beautiful.
Emad Sufi (4 months ago)
Nash?? "The mathematical theory of games was invented by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern (1944)" https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-theory/
David Chen (4 months ago)
I would’ve loved it if they had matpat host this episode
Emon bhuiyan (4 months ago)
What if Salad cost more than Steak? do I still pay more?
Pranav Limaye (4 months ago)
angelyiu629 (4 months ago)
My best matpat imatetion
PiCABLESKY (4 months ago)
im curious what kind if game si taxation besides THEFT..please make scientific explanation
Ciro Guerra-Lara (5 months ago)
Actually cooperative games exist when there is an authority that can enforce contracts effectively, thus enforcing cooperative strategies. In non cooperative games there is no effective authority that enforces contracts, thus coalitions exist only as far as they are convenient or enforcible by the players themselves. You are confusing concepts of cooperative games with zero sum games. In zero sum games what you win was lost by another player. In non zero sum games you have to consider the creation and destruction of value within tne game. Different concepts.
NKN (5 months ago)
who else thought that this episode is about MatPat's Game Theory
Aaditya Swongamikha (5 months ago)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHH3Jc6esRk&t=72s check out my new video and please like and subscribe... It's about dark matter
6vorn9 (5 months ago)
What's going on under that shirt?
Jenniline Lambrento (5 months ago)
wheres matpat? and wheres the game theory outro
rey dio (5 months ago)
I'm an Industrial Engineering Student, and we game theory for breakfast, hahah Alteast for the finals last sem lol :-D
CalculatinGenius (5 months ago)
Welcome, to GAME THEROY
TheHiddenKobster 05 (5 months ago)
But hey, it’s just a theory A GAME theory! Thanks for watching! Now it’s time for... SUPER AMAZING END CARD TOURNAMENT
Juliano Ghaly (5 months ago)
or MatPat
Polaris Seven (6 months ago)
Thanks for the elegant explanation. It's a brilliant theory formulated by a beautiful mind.
Shastha Liyanage (6 months ago)
Good Stuff !
Tom Rauhe (6 months ago)
By that logic, you cannot play a game by yourself. But there are tons of games that make you play against a "system". Most computer games are, for starters, and most cooperative games can be played by yourself
Submarine in the Sky (6 months ago)
this isn't what i thought it was
Jim Jr44 (6 months ago)
So how does that work with the US and the UN?
KappaScopeZZ (6 months ago)
Being smart is not only caring about yourself

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